Dr. King-Ning Tu    Professor King-Ning Tu
Tel. (310) 206-4838
FAX (310) 206-7353

Professor; B.S., National Taiwan University; M.S., Brown University; Ph.D. in
Applied Physics, Harvard University (1968)
  From 1968 to 1993, he spent 25 years at IBM
as Research Staff Member in Physical Science Department.  During that period, he also served as Senior
Manager of Thin Film Science Department and Materials Science Department for 10
years.  In September 1993, he joined the
Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering at UCLA as full professor.   He is now a distinguished professor in both
Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Electrical
Engineering at UCLA.  He is a Fellow of
American Physical Society (APS), The Metallurgical Society (TMS), Materials
Research Society (MRS), and an Overseas Fellow of Churchill College,
Cambridge University,
.   He was president of MRS in 1981.  He is an academician of Academia Sinica,
Republic of China, elected in 2002.  He
received the 2013 John Bardeen Award of TMS.  He has over 500 journal publications with citations over 18,000 and
h-factor of 74. 

Research Interests

research interest is in wafer-based and flux-driven materials science. Modern
microelectronic and opto-electronic devices are built
on wafers, involving the growth or removal of mono-layers of atoms from the
wafer surface or from an inter-phase interface. We deal with open systems
having a constant wafer surface or interface, and the flux can be atoms,
charges, or energy beams.

major research areas are (1) Lead (Pb)-free solder
metallurgy and Cu-to-Cu direct bonding for 3D IC packaging technology in
consumer electronic products, (2) Advanced materials reliability problems of
microelectronic devices caused by irreversible processes, and (3) Nanoscale interdiffusion and

Areas of Dissertation Guidance

Nanoscale kinetic processes,  metal-silicon interfaces,  electromigrationPb-free
interconnects,  Cu-to-Cu direct bonding.

Recent Publications

Journal papers

1. Kai Chen, N. Tamura, Wei Tang, M. Kunz, Yi-Chia Chou, K. N. Tu, and Yi-Shao Lai, “High precision thermal stress study on flip
chips by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction,”
J. App. Phys., 107, 063502 (2010).

2. S. W. Liang, Chih Chen,
J. K. Han, Luhua Xu, K. N. Tu, and Yi-Shao Lai, “Blocking
hillock and whisker growth by intermetallic compound
formation in Sn-0.7Cu flip chip solder joints under electromigration,”
J. Appl. Phys. 107, 093715 (2010).

3. Zhengzheng Chen,
Nicholas Kioussis, K. N. Tu,
Nasr Ghoniem, and Jenn-Ming
Yang, “Inhibiting adatom diffusion through surface
alloying,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 105, 015703 (2010).

4. Chih Chen, H. M. Tong,
and K. N. Tu, “Electromigration and thermomigraion in Pb-free
flip chip solder joints,” Annual Rev. Mater. Res., 40, 531-555 (2010).

5. W. W. Wu, K. C. Lu, C. W. Wang, H. Y. Hsieh, S.
Y. Chen, Y. C. Chou, S. Y. Yu, L. J. Chen, and K. N. Tu,
“Growth of multiple metal/semiconductor nanoheterostructures through point and line contact reactions,” Nano Lett., 10(10), 3984-3989 (2010).

6. Xioa-Ning Guo, Ru-Jing Shang, Dong-Hua Wang, Guo-Qiang Jin, and
Xiang-Yun Guo, and K. N. Tu, “Avoiding loss of catalytic activity of Pd nanoparticles partially embedded in nanoditches in SiC nanowires,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 5:332-337

7. Kuan-Chia Chen, Wen-Wei Wu, Chien-Neng Liao, Lih-Juann Chen, and K. N. Tu,
“Stability of nanoscale twins in copper under
electric current stressing,“ J. Appl. Phys., 108, 066103 (2010).

8. Yi-Chia Chou, Kuo-Chang Lu, and K. N. Tu,
“Nucleation and growth of epitaxial silicide in
silicon nanowires,” Materials Science and
Engineering: R: Reports, Vol. 70, pp. 112-125 (2010).

9. A. O. Kovalchuk, A. M. Gusak, and K. N. Tu,
“Theory of repeating nucleation in point contact reactions between nanowires,”  Nano Lett., 10(12), 4799-4806

10.  Yi-Chia Chou, Wen-Wei Wu, Chung-Yang Lee, L. J. Chen, and K. N. Tu, “Heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation of epitaxial
NiSi2 in [110] Si nanowires,” J. Phys.
Chem. C, 115, 397-401 (2011).

11. K. N. Tu, “Reliability
challenges in 3D IC packaging technology,” Microelectronics Reliability, 51,
517-523 (2011).

12.  J. O. Suh, K. N. Tu, Albert T. Wu, and N. Tamura, “Preferred orientation
relationships with large misfit interfaces between Ni3Sn4 and Ni in reactive
wetting of eutectic SnPb on Ni,” J. Appl. Phys. 109,
123513 (2011).

13. Kuo-Chang Lu, Wen-Wei Wu, Hao Ouyang,  Yung-Chen
Lin, Yu Huang, Chun-Wen Wang; Zheng-Wei
Wu, Chun-Wei Huang; Lih-Juann Chen, and K. N. Tu, “The Influence of Surface Oxide on the Growth of
Metal/Semiconductor <span Nano Lett., 11(7), 2753-2758

14. Tian Tian, Kai Chen, A. A. MacDowell, Dula Parkinson, Yi-Shao Lai, and
K. N. Tu, “Quantitative x-ray microtomography study of 3D void growth induced by electromigration in eutectic SnPb flip-chip solder joints,” Script
Mat. 65, 646-649 (2011).

15. Tian Tian, Feng Xu, Jung Kyu Han, Daechul Choi, Yin Cheng, Luksa Helfen, Marco Di Michiel, Tilo Baumbach,
and K. N. Tu, “ Rapid diagnosis of electromigration induced failure time of Pb-free flip chip solder joints by high resolution
synchrotron radiation laminography,”  Appl. Phys. Lett.,
99, 082114 (2011).

16. Hsiang-Yao Hsiao, Chih-Chia Hu, Ming-Yung Guo, Chih Chen, and K.N. Tu, “To
inhibit the consumption of Cu during multiple reflows of Pb-free
solder on Cu,” Scripta Mater. 65,
907-910 (2011).

17. Jung-Kyu Han, Daechul Choi, Masaru Fujiyoshi,
Nobuhiko Chiwata, K. N. Tu,
“Current density redistribution from no current crowding to current crowding in Pb-free solder joints with an extremely thick Cu
layer,” Acta Mater., 60, 102 (2012).

18. Y.S. Huang, H.Y. Hsiao, Chih Chen, K.N. Tu, “The effect of a concentration gradient on interfacial
reactions in microburaps of Ni/SnAg/Cu
during liquid-state soldering,” Scripta Mater., 66,
741 (2012).

19. Hsiang-Yao Hsiao, Chien-Min Liu, Han-wen Lin, Tao-Chi Liu, Chia-Ling Lu, Yi-Sa Huang, Chih Chen, K. N. Tu,
“Unidirectional Growth of Microbumps on
(111)-Oriented and Nanotwinned Copper,” Science, 336,
1007 (2012).

20. Wei Tang, Shadi A. Dayeh,
S. Tom Picraux, Jian Yu
Huang, K. N. Tu, “Ultrashort Channel Silicon Nanowire Transistors with Nickel Silicide Source/Drain Contacts,” Nano Lett., 12, 3979 (2012).

21. Chih Chen, Hsiang-Yao Hsiao, Yuan-Wei Chang, Fanyi Ouyang, K.N. Tu, “Thermomigration in solder joints,”
Mater. Sci. Eng., R., 73, 85 (2012).

22. Fan-Yi Ouyang, K.N. Tu,
Yi-Shao Lai, “Effect of electromigration induced joule heating and strain on microstructural recrystallization in eutectic SnPb flip chip solder joints,” Mater. Chem. Phys., 136, 210 (2012).

23. Ming-Yung Guo, C.K. Lin, Chih Chen, K.N. Tu, “Asymmetrical
growth of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compounds due to rapid thermomigration of Cu in
molten SnAg solder joints,” Intermetallics.,
29, 155 (2012).

24. K. N. Tu, Hsiang-Yao
Hsiao, and Chih Chen, “Transition from flip chip
solder joint to 3D IC microbump:  Its effect on microstructure anisotropy,”
Microelectronics Reliability, 53, 2-6 (2013).

25. Y. C. Liang, H. W. Lin, H. P. Chen, C. Chen, K.
N. Tu, and Y. S. Lai, “Anisotropic grain growth and
crack propagation in eutectic microstructure under cyclic temperature annealing
in flip chip SnPb composite solder joints,” Scripta Mat., 69, 25-28 (2013).

26. Han-wen Lin, Jia-ling Lu, Chen-min Liu, Chih Chen, Delphic Chen, Jui-Chao Kuo , and K.
N. Tu, “Microstructure control of uni-directional growth of
η-Cu6Sn5 in microbumps on <111> oriented and nanotwinned Cu” Acta Mat., 61,
4910-4919 (2013).

27. K.
N. Tu and Tian Tian, “Metallurgical challenges in microelectronic
3D IC packaging technology for future consumer electronic products,” Science
China – Technological Sciences, 56, No. 7, 1740-1748 (2013).

28. Shadi A. Dayeh, Wei Tang , Francesca Boioli, Karen L. Kavanagh, He Zheng , Jian Wang, Nathan H. Mack, Greg Swadener, Jian Yu Huang , Leo Miglio, K. N. Tu, and S. Tom Picraux, Direct
Measurement of Coherency Limits for Strain Relaxation in Heteroepitaxial Core/Shell Nanowires,” Nano Letters, 13, 1869-1876 (2013).

29. Wei Tang, S. Tom Picraux, Jian Yu Huang, Andriy Gusak, K. N. Tu, and Shadi A. Dayeh, “Nucleation
and Atomic Layer Reaction in Nickel Silicide for
Defect-engineered Si <span Nano Lett., 13, 2748-2753 (2013).

30. K. N. Tu, and Wei
Tang, “Metallurgical microstructure control in metal-silicon reactions,”
Science China – Technological Sciences, 57, 505-519 (2014).

31.  Chien-Min Liu. Han-wen Lin, Yi-Cheng
Chu, Chih Chen, Dian-Rong Lyu, Kuan-Neng Chen,a nd K. N. Tu, “Low temperature direct copper-to-copper bonding
enabled by creep on highly (111)- oriented Cu surfaces, “ Scripta Mat. 78-79, 65-68 (2014).



1. King-Ning Tu, James W. Mayer, and Leonard C. Feldman, “Electronic Thin Film Science”, 428 pages, Macmillan,
1992, ISBN 0-02-42575-9.

2. King-Ning Tu, “Solder Joint Technology: Materials, properties, and
“, 368 pages, Springer, 2007. ISBN – 13:

3. King-Ning Tu, “Electronic Thin Film
Reliability”, 396 pages, Cambridge University Press, 2011. ISBN –

4. King-Ning Tu and Andriy M. Gusak, “Kinetics in Nanoscale Materials”, 296 pages, Wiley, 2014.

Awards and Honors

  • American
    Physical Society – Fellow, 1981
  • The
    Metallurgical Society – Fellow, 1988
  • Materials
    Research Society – Fellow, 2010
  • Churchill
    College – Overseas Fellow, 1990
  • Materials
    Research Society – President, 1981
  • The
    Metallurgical Society – Application to Practice Award, 1988 
  • Acta/Scripta Metallurgica Lecturer, 1990 – 1992
  • Humboldt
    Research Award for Senior US scientists, 1996

·         Advisory Professor (life-time) at Fudan University, Shanghai, China, since 1997

  • Member
    of Academia Sinica, ROC, 2002

·         Tan Kah Kee Visiting Professorship at Nanyang Tech. Uni.,
Singapore, 2002

·         The Royal Society/Kan Tong Po Visiting Professorship at City U of Hong
Kong, 2002

·         TMS Electronic, Magnetic, and Photonic Materials Division Distinguished
Scientist Award, 2007

·         John Bardeen Award of EMPMD/TMS, 2013

·         K. T. Li Chair Professor Award at National Cheng Kung University and at
National Central University, Taiwan, 2008.

·         Chair Professor at Department of Materials Science and Engineering in
the following universities in Taiwan;  National Taiwan University, National Central University, National Tsing Hua University, National Chiao Tung University, National Chung Hsing University, National Cheng Kung University.

Professional Activities

Organizer and Co-Chairman, TMS Symposia



Advance in Amorphous-to-Crystalline Phase Transformations, Cleveland



Interfacial Reactions in Solids, Cincinnati



Diffusion Studies in thin Films, Chicago



Diffusion, Phase Transformations and Deformation in Low-Melting Point
Metals, St. Louis



Thin-film Microstructure and Properties, Milwaukee



Materials and Technologies for Microelectronics, Anaheim



Electrically Conductive Materials, Orlando

Organizer and Co-Chairman, MRS Symposia



Semiconductor Interfaces, Cambridge



Thin Films and Interfaces, Boston



Electronic Packaging Materials Science, Boston



Phase Transformations in Condensed Systems – Experiments and Theory,



Poly-Si Films and Interfaces, Boston



Silicide, Germanide and their Interfaces, Boston



Advanced Metallization for VLSI, San Francisco



Electronic Packaging Materials Science VIII, San Francisco



Advanced Metallization for future ULSI, San Francisco


Advanced Interconnects and Contacts, San Francisco

Other Activities

Society Committee Membership



Program Co-Chairman, Annual Meeting of MRS, Boston



Program co-chairman, the 2nd International Conference on Solid State
and Integrated Circuit Technology, Beijing, China (did not attend the



Member, International Advisory Committee, the 3rd International
Conference on Solid State and Integrated Circuit Technology, Beijing, China


Program co-Chairman, the 5th International Conference on Solid
State and Integrated Circuit Technology, Beijing, China



Chair, Long-Range Planning Committee, MRS



Chair, TMS Fellow Award Committee



Chair, Executive Committee of UC-SMART Program

Courses Taught


Relations in Solids


and Diffusion-Controlled Reactions


and Diffusion-Controlled Reactions Laboratory


of Materials Science (Solid State phase changes)


Film Materials Science



Personal Homepage: www.seas.ucla.edu/eThinFilm/professor.html

Research Group/Lab: Electronic Thin Film

Office Location

  • 3121-D
    Engineering V

Mailing Address

  • UCLA,
    HSSEAS School of Engineering & Applied Sciences
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering
    410 Westwood Plaza
    3111 Engineering V
    Los Angeles, CA 90095-1595